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Full text of "Flora Indica Vol-I"

80                                            VLOll.V   INDICA,
siderably lowered the temperature of that province, (the arid
plains of the Pan jab, however, remaining excessively heated,,)
it becomes S.S.E., and in September still more easterly.
In the eastern (Malayan) peninsula it is probable that the
direction of this monsoon is nearly froni south to north; but
more detailed information is required to enable us to und< r-
stond the precise course of the aerial current in all parts uf
that Peninsula. At the commencement of the monsoon the
wide and open valley of the Irawadi seems to act as a local
source of attraction., to which the wind blows from both
oceans. At a later season, the elevated temperature of the
plain of the Ganges ami the Tibetan valley of the* Brahma-
putra overpowers that influence, and the main atmospheric
current flows over the mountains south of Assam and as-
cends the valleys of both these rivers in a north-westerly di-
rection.
II. The north-east or whiter monsoon. As a roiiseinuMuv
of what we have stated, after the autumnal equinox, the groat
inass of the Himalaya becomes intensely cold, and the v.hole
of the continent comparatively cool, while the southern hemi-
sphere gets powerfully heated. The north-east monsoon,
which results from this distribution of temperature, is the
effect of a distant attraction, and therefore, blows with great
regularity. It is everywhere a land wind, except in the Ma-
layan Peninsula and on the coast of the Carnatic. In Ma-
laya it blows over a great extent of sea, and is therefore very
rainy; but in the Carnatic the width of wea is not great, so
that the rain-fall, though well marked, is less, and terminates
long before the end of the monsoon, .probably from the wind
acquiring a more directly southerly direction, after the HUU
has reached the southern tropic.
The current which flows towards the southern hemisphere
as the north-east monsoon, is replaced by an upper OHO which
flows northward. It is from this northerly current, which
arrives moisture-laden from the southern ocean, that are do-
rived the winter snows of the Himalaya and of the mountain**